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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:lyggy.cn 点击:


如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心十分重要。可以说,正确选型是用好卧式加工中心的基础,是使卧式加工中心发挥出最大效率和效益的关键。卧式加工中心一次性投资大、技术复杂,同时种类、规格繁多,其价格、功能和精度又是一个对立的统一体,用户在选购时往往有不少疑问。

卧式加工中心

1我应该使用卧(wo)式(shi)加工中心吗?——加工工件特征

加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心类型(xing)的(de)(de)选(xuan)定需要(yao)(yao)考虑加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)对象、加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)、加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)范围和设(she)备价(jia)格等(deng)(deng)因素(su),根据所选(xuan)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)族(zu) (组)进(jin)行。如果您(nin)的(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)具(ju)有(you)以下特征,则(ze)应选(xuan)择(ze)卧式加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心:加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)两面(mian)(mian)以上(shang)的(de)(de)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)或(huo)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)在四(si)周(zhou)呈径(jing)向辐(fu)射状排列的(de)(de)孔系(xi)、面(mian)(mian),如箱体类、壳体类零(ling)件(jian)(jian)等(deng)(deng),应选(xuan)择(ze)卧式加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心;被加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)位(wei)置精度(du)要(yao)(yao)求较高,宜(yi)选(xuan)用(yong)高精密卧式加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心;零(ling)件(jian)(jian)在一次装夹中(zhong)(zhong)需要(yao)(yao)完(wan)成(cheng)多面(mian)(mian)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)时,可选(xuan)择(ze)立卧复合(he)式五面(mian)(mian)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心。当然(ran),上(shang)述各点也不是绝对的(de)(de),一方(fang)(fang)面(mian)(mian)是由于加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心正朝(chao)着复合(he)化方(fang)(fang)向发展,另(ling)一方(fang)(fang)面(mian)(mian)选(xuan)型(xing)时要(yao)(yao)综合(he)考虑生产(chan)效(xiao)率、加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)要(yao)(yao)求和设(she)备资金(jin)等(deng)(deng)因素(su),要(yao)(yao)以性价(jia)比来衡(heng)量选(xuan)型(xing)方(fang)(fang)案的(de)(de)合(he)理(li)性。

建议(yi):采购用(yong)户需要根据加(jia)工(gong)对象、加(jia)工(gong)工(gong)艺(yi)、加(jia)工(gong)范围等(deng)特征来确定是否使用(yong)卧式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中心以及使用(yong)什么样(yang)的卧式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中心。

2我需要选用什么规格的卧式加工中心?——主要规格的选定

(1)工作台尺寸(cun)

这是卧式(shi)(shi)加工(gong)中(zhong)心的(de)(de)(de)主(zhu)参数,主(zhu)要取决于(yu)典型零(ling)件的(de)(de)(de)外廓(kuo)尺(chi)寸(cun)、装(zhuang)(zhuang)夹方式(shi)(shi)等(deng)。应选择比(bi)典型零(ling)件外廓(kuo)尺(chi)寸(cun)稍大一些(xie)的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)作(zuo)台,以便留(liu)出(chu)安装(zhuang)(zhuang)夹具所需(xu)的(de)(de)(de)空间(jian),保(bao)证(zheng)零(ling)件在其上面能够顺利装(zhuang)(zhuang)夹,此外还应考虑工(gong)作(zuo)台的(de)(de)(de)承载能力、T形槽数量和尺(chi)寸(cun)等(deng),小(xiao)尺(chi)寸(cun)的(de)(de)(de)比(bi)较通用,比(bi)如站内的(de)(de)(de)卧式(shi)(shi)加工(gong)中(zhong)心MH-630A、MH-800A、MH-500A、LH-630B等(deng)。

建议:目(mu)前市场(chang)上的卧式加工中(zhong)心工作台尺寸多为1000以下的,能够满足大多数用户的需求。

(2)坐(zuo)标(biao)轴行(xing)程(cheng)

最基(ji)本的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)坐标轴(zhou)是X、Y、Z三轴(zhou),其(qi)行(xing)程(cheng)和(he)工(gong)作(zuo)台尺寸有(you)相(xiang)应的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)比(bi)例关系,工(gong)作(zuo)台面的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)大(da)小(xiao)基(ji)本上确定(ding)了加(jia)(jia)工(gong)空间的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)大(da)小(xiao)。如(ru)个别零件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)尺寸大(da)于(yu)卧式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)行(xing)程(cheng)时(shi),则必须要(yao)求零件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)区域处于(yu)机(ji)床的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)行(xing)程(cheng)范围(wei)之内,此(ci)外还(hai)要(yao)考虑(lv)(lv)零件(jian)(jian)是否与(yu)机(ji)床交换(huan)刀(dao)具的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)空间干涉、与(yu)机(ji)床防护罩等(deng)附(fu)件(jian)(jian)发生(sheng)干涉等(deng)系列问题。而对需要(yao)多轴(zhou)联动加(jia)(jia)工(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)卧式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin) (如(ru)增加(jia)(jia)回转坐标A、B、C或附(fu)加(jia)(jia)坐标U、V、W),如(ru)四轴(zhou)、五轴(zhou)联动卧式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin),这(zhei)就(jiu)需要(yao)特(te)殊(shu)订货,同时(shi)必须对相(xiang)应配套的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)编程(cheng)软件(jian)(jian)、测量手(shou)段以及机(ji)床价格等(deng)有(you)全面的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)考虑(lv)(lv)和(he)安排。

建议:采(cai)购用户需要根据加工(gong)工(gong)件规格(ge)选择不同坐标(biao)轴行程的(de)卧式加工(gong)中心,多轴联(lian)动需要特(te)殊定制。

(3)主(zhu)轴(zhou)电动机功率与(yu)转矩

它反映(ying)了(le)卧(wo)(wo)(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)的(de)(de)切削(xue)效率(lv),也(ye)从一个侧面(mian)反映(ying)了(le)卧(wo)(wo)(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)的(de)(de)切削(xue)刚性和(he)机(ji)(ji)床整体刚度。主(zhu)(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)电动机(ji)(ji)功率(lv)在同(tong)类规格的(de)(de)卧(wo)(wo)(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)上(shang)可以有各种不(bu)同(tong)的(de)(de)配置,同(tong)类规格的(de)(de)主(zhu)(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)转速(su)不(bu)同(tong)的(de)(de)卧(wo)(wo)(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心(xin),主(zhu)(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)电动机(ji)(ji)功率(lv)可以相(xiang)差很大。

建议:采购用户应根据自(zi)身典型零件毛(mao)坯(pi)余量大小、切(qie)(qie)削能(neng)力 (单(dan)位时间金属切(qie)(qie)削量)、要求达到(dao)的加工精度(du)、实(shi)际(ji)能(neng)配置(zhi)的刀具(ju)等因素(su)综合选择。

(4)主轴转速(su)与(yu)进给(ji)速(su)度

需(xu)要高(gao)(gao)速(su)(su)切(qie)(qie)削或(huo)超(chao)低(di)速(su)(su)切(qie)(qie)削时,应关注主轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)的转(zhuan)速(su)(su)范(fan)围(wei)。特别是高(gao)(gao)速(su)(su)切(qie)(qie)削时,既要有高(gao)(gao)的主轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)转(zhuan)速(su)(su),同时也要具备与主轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)转(zhuan)速(su)(su)相(xiang)匹配的进(jin)给速(su)(su)度。目前卧式加工中(zhong)心高(gao)(gao)速(su)(su)化趋势发展很快,主轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)从每分钟几(ji)千转(zhuan)到(dao)几(ji)万(wan)转(zhuan),直(zhi)线坐标快速(su)(su)移动速(su)(su)度从10—20/min上升到(dao)80m/min以上,当然(ran)其功能(neng)部件如电主轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)、直(zhi)线电动机(ji)、直(zhi)线滚动导轨(gui)、主轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)承等(deng)及相(xiang)配套的光栅尺、刀具等(deng)附件价格(ge)也都相(xiang)应上升,甚至(zhi)很昂(ang)贵。

建议:采购用户必(bi)须根(gen)据自身(shen)的技术(shu)能力和配套能力合理作出卧式(shi)加工中心的合理选型。

(5)刀库容(rong)量

可以根据被加(jia)(jia)工零件(jian)的工艺分析结果来确定所需数(shu)量,通常以典型零件(jian)在一次装(zhuang)夹中所需刀(dao)(dao)具数(shu)量来确定刀(dao)(dao)库(ku)的容量,卧(wo)(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工中心以选用(yong)40把刀(dao)(dao)左(zuo)右的刀(dao)(dao)库(ku)为宜。同时要(yao)关注最大(da)刀(dao)(dao)具直径(jing)与长度以及最大(da)刀(dao)(dao)具重量等。用(yong)于FMC或FMS的卧(wo)(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工中心,应选择(ze)大(da)容量刀(dao)(dao)库(ku),甚至配置可交换刀(dao)(dao)库(ku)。

建议:普通(tong)卧(wo)式加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心选择40把刀(dao)左右的刀(dao)库(ku)即够用(yong),用(yong)于FMC或FMS的卧(wo)式加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心应选择大容量刀(dao)库(ku)。

3我(wo)需(xu)要选(xuan)用什么精度的(de)卧式加(jia)工中心?——精度的(de)选(xuan)定

加工中心的(de)(de)精度(du)(du)等级主(zhu)要根据典型零件(jian)关键部位(wei)的(de)(de)精度(du)(du)来确(que)定(ding)(ding)(ding)。其精度(du)(du)主(zhu)要包括定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)精度(du)(du)、重复(fu)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)精度(du)(du)和(he)铣圆精度(du)(du),特别(bie)(bie)是(shi)(shi)(shi)重复(fu)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)精度(du)(du),它反映了坐标(biao)(biao)轴的(de)(de)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)稳定(ding)(ding)(ding)性,是(shi)(shi)(shi)衡量该轴是(shi)(shi)(shi)否稳定(ding)(ding)(ding)可靠工作的(de)(de)基本(ben)(ben)指标(biao)(biao)。特别(bie)(bie)值(zhi)得注意的(de)(de)是(shi)(shi)(shi),选型订货(huo)时(shi)必须(xu)全面(mian)分析,不(bu)(bu)能简(jian)单地看产(chan)品样(yang)本(ben)(ben)所列的(de)(de)精度(du)(du)数(shu)值(zhi),因为(wei)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun)不(bu)(bu)同、规定(ding)(ding)(ding)数(shu)值(zhi)不(bu)(bu)同、检测(ce)方法(fa)不(bu)(bu)同,数(shu)值(zhi)的(de)(de)含(han)义就不(bu)(bu)同。刊物(wu)、样(yang)本(ben)(ben)、合格证(zheng)所列出(chu)的(de)(de)单位(wei)长度(du)(du)上允许的(de)(de)正负(fu)值(zhi)(一般为(wei)正负(fu)0.05)常常是(shi)(shi)(shi)不(bu)(bu)明(ming)确(que)的(de)(de),订货(huo)时(shi)要特别(bie)(bie)注意,一定(ding)(ding)(ding)要弄清是(shi)(shi)(shi)IOS(国际标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun)化组织标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun))、VDI(德国标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun))、JIS(日本(ben)(ben)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun))、NMTBA(美国机(ji)床制造商协会标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun))还是(shi)(shi)(shi)NAS(美国标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun))及GB(中国标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun))等,进而分析各种(zhong)不(bu)(bu)同标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun)所规定(ding)(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)检测(ce)计算方法(fa)和(he)检测(ce)环境条件(jian),才(cai)不(bu)(bu)会产(chan)生误(wu)解。

铣(xian)圆精(jing)度是综(zong)合评(ping)价卧式加工中(zhong)心有关数控(kong)轴的(de)伺服(fu)跟(gen)随(sui)运(yun)动(dong)特性和(he)数控(kong)系(xi)统(tong)插补(bu)功能的(de)主要指标(biao)之一(yi)(yi)。不(bu)论典(dian)型零件(jian)是否有此需(xu)(xu)要,为(wei)了将来(lai)可能的(de)需(xu)(xu)要及更好地控(kong)制精(jing)度,必须重视这一(yi)(yi)指标(biao)。

要(yao)特别注(zhu)意区别加(jia)工(gong)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)(du)与机床精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)(du)两(liang)个不同的(de)(de)概念。将生产厂(chang)家样本上(shang)(shang)(shang)或产品合格证上(shang)(shang)(shang)的(de)(de)位置(zhi)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)(du)当作(zuo)(zuo)卧式加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心的(de)(de)加(jia)工(gong)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)(du)是错误的(de)(de)。样本或合格证上(shang)(shang)(shang)标明的(de)(de)位置(zhi)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)(du)是加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心本身的(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)(du),而加(jia)工(gong)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)(du)是包括卧式加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心本身所允(yun)许误差(cha)在(zai)内的(de)(de)整个工(gong)艺系(xi)统各种因素所产生的(de)(de)误差(cha)总(zong)和。整个工(gong)艺系(xi)统误差(cha)产生的(de)(de)原因是很(hen)复(fu)杂(za)的(de)(de),很(hen)难用(yong)线性关(guan)系(xi)定(ding)量表达。选型(xing)时,可参考工(gong)序(xu)能力系(xi)数(shu)Cp的(de)(de)评定(ding)方法来作(zuo)(zuo)为机床加(jia)工(gong)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)(du)的(de)(de)选型(xing)依据。一(yi)般(ban)而言(yan),Cp应大于1.33。

站(zhan)内高精密的几款卧式加工(gong)中(zhong)心:MH-630B、LH-300A、MH-500B、TH500动柱式卧式加工(gong)中(zhong)心性(xing)能都不错。

建(jian)议:采购用户在挑选不(bu)同精(jing)度(du)的(de)卧式加工(gong)中心时,需要(yao)考虑:不(bu)同标准对应的(de)单位长度(du)含义;重(zhong)视铣圆精(jing)度(du)指标;区别(bie)加工(gong)精(jing)度(du)和(he)机床(chuang)精(jing)度(du)。

4我应该选择(ze)哪(na)种数(shu)控系(xi)统(tong)?——数(shu)控系(xi)统(tong)的选定

数(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)功(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)分为基本功(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)与选(xuan)择(ze)(ze)(ze)功(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng),可以(yi)从(cong)操作方式(shi)、用户功(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)、控(kong)(kong)制方式(shi)、驱动形式(shi)、反馈(kui)形式(shi)、接口形式(shi)、检(jian)测与测量、报警与提(ti)示、故障(zhang)诊断等方面(mian)综(zong)合衡量。基本功(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)是必须(xu)提(ti)供的(de),而(er)(er)只(zhi)有当用户选(xuan)择(ze)(ze)(ze)了选(xuan)择(ze)(ze)(ze)功(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)后,厂(chang)家(jia)才(cai)会(hui)另(ling)行提(ti)供并另(ling)行加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)价(jia),且定价(jia)一般较(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)高(gao)(gao)(gao)。总体(ti)而(er)(er)言,数(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)的(de)功(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)一定要(yao)(yao)根据加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)的(de)性(xing)(xing)能(neng)(neng)需要(yao)(yao)来(lai)选(xuan)择(ze)(ze)(ze),订(ding)购(gou)时既要(yao)(yao)把需要(yao)(yao)的(de)功(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)订(ding)全,不能(neng)(neng)遗漏,同时避免使(shi)用率不高(gao)(gao)(gao)而(er)(er)造(zao)成浪费,还需注(zhu)意各功(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)之(zhi)间的(de)关联性(xing)(xing)。另(ling)一方面(mian),在可供选(xuan)择(ze)(ze)(ze)的(de)数(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)中(zhong),如(ru)SIEMENS系(xi)统(tong)(tong)、FANUC系(xi)统(tong)(tong)、国产华中(zhong)数(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)等,性(xing)(xing)能(neng)(neng)高(gao)(gao)(gao)低差别很大(da),价(jia)格亦相差很大(da),进口系(xi)统(tong)(tong)或国产系(xi)统(tong)(tong)亦决定其价(jia)格的(de)高(gao)(gao)(gao)低。总体(ti)上来(lai)看,法兰(lan)克(ke)(ke)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)性(xing)(xing)价(jia)比(bi)比(bi)较(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)高(gao)(gao)(gao),国内卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)使(shi)用比(bi)例(li)比(bi)较(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)高(gao)(gao)(gao)。站内卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)使(shi)用法兰(lan)克(ke)(ke)数(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)的(de)也比(bi)较(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)多(duo),比(bi)如(ru)MH-800B 、 LH-500B都是比(bi)较(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)好的(de)选(xuan)择(ze)(ze)(ze)。多(duo)台卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)选(xuan)型时,应尽可能(neng)(neng)选(xuan)用同一厂(chang)家(jia)的(de)数(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)统(tong)(tong),这样操作、编程、维修都比(bi)较(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)方便(bian)。

建议:法兰克数控系统性价比比较高,多台卧式加工中心选型尽量选用同一厂家的数控系统。

5我(wo)需(xu)要选择(ze)几台卧(wo)式加工(gong)中(zhong)心能达到的我(wo)的产量要求?——生产能力的估算

选型(xing)时(shi),必须要(yao)考虑(lv)卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心能达到(dao)的(de)(de)生(sheng)产能力(li),即(ji)要(yao)求选定的(de)(de)卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心在(zai)一年之内能加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)几种典(dian)型(xing)零件(jian)(jian)、加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)出(chu)多少(shao)数(shu)量(liang)的(de)(de)零件(jian)(jian)。要(yao)得(de)到(dao)这些(xie)数(shu)据必须对每(mei)一种确(que)定的(de)(de)典(dian)型(xing)零件(jian)(jian)进(jin)(jin)(jin)行加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)时(shi)和(he)生(sheng)产节拍的(de)(de)估(gu)算。一般步(bu)骤为:首先(xian),根据已(yi)选定的(de)(de)典(dian)型(xing)零件(jian)(jian)进(jin)(jin)(jin)行工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)分析,初步(bu)确(que)定一条(tiao)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)路线,在(zai)这条(tiao)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)路线中(zhong)选出(chu)准备在(zai)卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心上加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu);第二,根据现用的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)参数(shu),估(gu)算出(chu)每(mei)道在(zai)卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心上加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu)的(de)(de)单(dan)个(ge)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu)时(shi)间;第三,由每(mei)个(ge)单(dan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu)时(shi)间计(ji)算出(chu)选定零件(jian)(jian)在(zai)卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心上加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu)的(de)(de)总时(shi)间,进(jin)(jin)(jin)而(er)计(ji)算出(chu)年产量(liang)即(ji)生(sheng)产能力(li)。如(ru)果(guo)估(gu)算结果(guo)达不(bu)到(dao)目标值,但相差不(bu)大,则(ze)(ze)可以通过修改工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)参数(shu)的(de)(de)方(fang)法加(jia)(jia)以调(diao)整;如(ru)果(guo)相差很大,则(ze)(ze)应(ying)考虑(lv)增加(jia)(jia)卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心台数(shu)的(de)(de)配置(zhi)。

建议:采(cai)购用户需要根(gen)据工(gong)件加工(gong)工(gong)时和生产节(jie)拍的估算,决(jue)定卧式(shi)加工(gong)中心(xin)配(pei)备台数。

6卧式加工中心有好多选(xuan)配的附件(jian)(jian)我(wo)应该如何选(xuan)配?——其他功能部件(jian)(jian)及附件(jian)(jian)的选(xuan)定

(1)坐标轴数和联(lian)动轴数

坐(zuo)标(biao)轴数(shu)和联动轴数(shu)均应(ying)满足典型(xing)零件(jian)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)要求。一(yi)(yi)般情(qing)况下(xia),同厂(chang)家(jia)、同规格(ge)、同等(deng)精度的卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心,增加(jia)一(yi)(yi)个标(biao)准坐(zuo)标(biao)轴,价格(ge)约增加(jia)30%—50%。尽管增加(jia)坐(zuo)标(biao)轴数(shu)可以强化加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心的功能,是机床上档次(ci)的标(biao)志之一(yi)(yi),但最终还是要在工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺要求和资金条件(jian)下(xia)平衡决定。

(2)工作台

卧式(shi)加工(gong)中(zhong)心可配(pei)置(zhi)用于分(fen)(fen)度的回转(zhuan)工(gong)作台(tai)和数控(kong)回转(zhuan)工(gong)作台(tai),后者(zhe)能够实现(xian)任意分(fen)(fen)度,作为B轴(zhou)与其他(ta)轴(zhou)联(lian)动控(kong)制。回转(zhuan)工(gong)作台(tai)配(pei)置(zhi)与否以及如何配(pei)置(zhi)必(bi)须以实际需要来确定,以经济、实用为目的。

(3)自动换刀(dao)装置 (ATC)

ATC的(de)(de)选择主要(yao)考虑换刀时间(jian)与(yu)可靠性(xing)。过分强调换刀时间(jian)会使(shi)加工(gong)中心(xin)的(de)(de)价(jia)格大幅(fu)度提高(gao)(gao)并使(shi)故(gu)障(zhang)率(lv)上升。据统(tong)计,加工(gong)中心(xin)的(de)(de)故(gu)障(zhang)中约有50%与(yu)ATC有关,因(yin)此,在满足使(shi)用(yong)要(yao)求(qiu)的(de)(de)前提下,尽量选用(yong)可靠性(xing)高(gao)(gao)的(de)(de)ATC,以(yi)降低故(gu)障(zhang)率(lv)和整(zheng)机成本

(4)必要的(de)附件、配套(tao)件

选型时,还应(ying)注意选用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)一些(xie)配套件(jian)(jian)及附件(jian)(jian),尽量(liang)避免(mian)因缺(que)少(shao)一个几万元就能购(gou)买的(de)附件(jian)(jian)而(er)影响卧(wo)式加(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)的(de)正常运行。慎重(zhong)选择刀(dao)柄和刀(dao)具也(ye)是(shi)(shi)保证卧(wo)式加(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)正常运行的(de)关(guan)键,最佳的(de)选择办法应(ying)是(shi)(shi)根(gen)据典型零件(jian)(jian)所需(xu)的(de)品种和数量(liang)来确定,并在(zai)使用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)中陆续添置(zhi)(zhi)。在(zai)卧(wo)式加(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)的(de)构(gou)成(cheng)中,排屑装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)、防护装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)和对刀(dao)装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi) (如(ru)(ru)(ru)刀(dao)具预调仪)等均是(shi)(shi)必需(xu)的(de),对一些(xie)尽管不是(shi)(shi)必需(xu)的(de)配套件(jian)(jian),但如(ru)(ru)(ru)果价格不高,对使用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)带来很多方便,也(ye)应(ying)尽量(liang)选用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong),如(ru)(ru)(ru)附件(jian)(jian)铣头、储刀(dao)料架、运刀(dao)具车、装(zhuang)卸器等。

建(jian)议:配件越(yue)高,能(neng)(neng)实现的(de)功能(neng)(neng)越(yue)多,但价(jia)格也(ye)越(yue)贵,采(cai)购用户需要根据加工(gong)需求酌情选配。

7卧式加工中(zhong)心选型时还有什么(me)其他(ta)需要注意的?——需要注意的一些问题

(1)结(jie)构设计(ji)

加工中(zhong)心(xin)对其床身(shen)、立柱(zhu)、工作台、主轴以及刀库等功能(neng)部件的(de)(de)结构设计有(you)着很高(gao)(gao)的(de)(de)要求(qiu),以达到(dao)其高(gao)(gao)强度(du)、高(gao)(gao)刚度(du)、高(gao)(gao)抗振(zhen)性和稳定性的(de)(de)目的(de)(de)。选(xuan)型时,应特别注(zhu)意把其结构作为(wei)一项重要的(de)(de)具体内容(rong)来进行要求(qiu)与考(kao)虑。

(2)功能与加工的适应性

虽(sui)然加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心可以进行(xing)钻、扩(kuo)、铣、镗、铰、攻螺纹乃至车(che)削 (如(ru)车(che)铣复合加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心)等多种加(jia)(jia)工(gong),但是在具体选择时,还(hai)应根据(ju)具体需要(yao)来考虑机床的功(gong)能与(yu)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)是否相适应等问题。要(yao)注意以下几点:

A、复杂(za)曲线(xian)加工(gong)(gong)时(shi),要(yao)考虑(lv)CNC是否有(you)所(suo)(suo)需要(yao)的曲线(xian)插补功(gong)能,或(huo)选(xuan)择什么方式(shi)逼近加工(gong)(gong)曲线(xian)并保证所(suo)(suo)要(yao)求的表面粗糙度。三维加工(gong)(gong)时(shi),要(yao)考虑(lv)选(xuan)择适(shi)合的刀(dao)具结构,还要(yao)考虑(lv)程序编制(zhi)能力,如有(you)必(bi)(bi)要(yao)则必(bi)(bi)须配备自动编程装置(zhi)或(huo)后(hou)置(zhi)处理编程装置(zhi)。

B、需要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)进(jin)行(xing)(xing)螺(luo)(luo)纹(wen)切削(xue) (非攻螺(luo)(luo)纹(wen)方式)时,不仅要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)看是否(fou)(fou)有(you)螺(luo)(luo)纹(wen)切削(xue)功能、螺(luo)(luo)旋线插补(bu)功能和(he)主轴转动与进(jin)给同步功能,还要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)考虑机床是否(fou)(fou)有(you)径向进(jin)给装置(zhi)(zhi)、是否(fou)(fou)有(you)主轴在旋转方向上任意角度(du)位置(zhi)(zhi)准(zhun)确定(ding)位功能。否(fou)(fou)则,仅在数控系统(tong)中用(yong)了螺(luo)(luo)纹(wen)切削(xue)功能仍然无法(fa)进(jin)行(xing)(xing)螺(luo)(luo)纹(wen)切削(xue)C、采用(yong)金刚铰(jiao)、浮动镗和(he)挤压加(jia)工等特种加(jia)工时,既要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)考虑适(shi)(shi)宜的自动换刀的条件(jian),又(you)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)考虑选择合适(shi)(shi)的刀具结构和(he)切削(xue)用(yong)量,应尽可能在购(gou)买主机时一(yi)并购(gou)置(zhi)(zhi)部分易损部件(jian)及其他附件(jian)等。

D、如果有应用(yong)DNC、FMS、CIMS等的(de)规划(hua),或(huo)要进行(xing)网(wang)络制造,则(ze)要注意通(tong)信功能,应选择(ze)具有RS—232、RS—485甚至MAP网(wang)络通(tong)信、CAN总线(xian)等接口的(de)系统。

(3)运转的可(ke)靠性

卧式加工中心运转的可靠性决定了其质量好坏。数控系统由于某一块插件板故障造成停机数月的现象屡见不鲜,一个传感器失效造成机床丧失部分功能的现象也多有发生。所以在选型过程中,应采取对老用户进行走访等方式,更多一些了解所选卧式加工中心的使用情况。

建议:采购用(yong)户在(zai)选(xuan)型时,需要对卧式加工(gong)中心整体的结构设计、可(ke)靠性以及价加工(gong)适应性有客观的认识(shi)。


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