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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:lyggy.cn 点击:

桁架机械手作为时尚的一种输送工具,越来越受到青睐。目前,国内外主流的柔性自动线物流系统主要有两种形式:由桁架机械手输送工件组成的全自动生产系统和由机器人搬运系统进行上下料组成自动生产线。在欧美日等发达工业体系,由高速加工中心和桁架机械手组成的敏捷柔性生产系统已经是主流产品,桁架机械手在高空中输送零件,直接把被加工零件从一台机床输送到另一台机床上,桁架机械手兼有工序间运输和自动上下料及物料回转等辅助功能。由于它输送快捷、精准、柔性, 结构相对简捷,便于组合。因而,被机床制造商所器重。

桁架机械手的结构与工作原理

桁架(jia)机械(xie)手由(you)主体、驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)和(he)(he)(he)控制(zhi)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)三(san)个基本部分(fen)组成。按机器人结构分(fen)类为(wei)(wei)直角坐(zuo)标(biao)(biao)型(xing),机械(xie)手沿二维直角坐(zuo)标(biao)(biao)系(xi)移(yi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)。主体部分(fen)通常采用(yong)龙门式结构,由(you)y向(xiang)横(heng)梁(liang)与导(dao)轨(gui)、z向(xiang)滑(hua)枕(zhen)(zhen)、十字滑(hua)座(zuo)、立柱、过渡连接板和(he)(he)(he)基座(zuo)等部分(fen)组成,z向(xiang)的(de)直线(xian)运动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)皆(jie)为(wei)(wei)交(jiao)流伺(si)服电动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机通过蜗(wo)轮(lun)减速器驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)齿轮(lun)与y向(xiang)横(heng)梁(liang)、z向(xiang)滑(hua)枕(zhen)(zhen)上固定的(de)齿条(tiao)作滚动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong),驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)移(yi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)部件沿导(dao)轨(gui)快(kuai)速运动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)。移(yi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)部件为(wei)(wei)质(zhi)量(liang)较轻的(de)十字滑(hua)座(zuo)和(he)(he)(he)z向(xiang)滑(hua)枕(zhen)(zhen),滑(hua)枕(zhen)(zhen)采用(yong)由(you)铝(lv)合金(jin)拉(la)制(zhi)的(de)型(xing)材。横(heng)梁(liang)采用(yong)方钢型(xing)材,在(zai)横(heng)梁(liang)上安装有导(dao)轨(gui)和(he)(he)(he)齿条(tiao),通过滚轮(lun)与导(dao)轨(gui)接触,整(zheng)个机械(xie)手都悬挂(gua)在(zai)其上。

3   桁架机器人 重型机器人.jpg

由(you)于桁架(jia)(jia)机械手(shou)(shou)输送(song)的(de)(de)(de)速(su)(su)(su)度(du)(du)快,加(jia)速(su)(su)(su)度(du)(du)大,加(jia)减速(su)(su)(su)时(shi)间短。当(dang)输送(song)较重的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)件时(shi),惯量(liang)大,因此,伺(si)服(fu)(fu)驱(qu)动(dong)电(dian)机要(yao)(yao)(yao)有(you)足够的(de)(de)(de)驱(qu)动(dong)和(he)制(zhi)动(dong)的(de)(de)(de)能力,支撑(cheng)元件也要(yao)(yao)(yao)有(you)足够的(de)(de)(de)刚度(du)(du)及强度(du)(du)。只(zhi)有(you)这(zhei)样,才能使(shi)伺(si)服(fu)(fu)电(dian)动(dong)机满足桁架(jia)(jia)机械手(shou)(shou)输送(song)的(de)(de)(de)高(gao)响(xiang)应、高(gao)刚度(du)(du)及高(gao)精度(du)(du)要(yao)(yao)(yao)求。在(zai)选择合适伺(si)服(fu)(fu)电(dian)动(dong)机的(de)(de)(de)情况(kuang)下,根据物料运(yun)动(dong)的(de)(de)(de)距离和(he)运(yun)行节(jie)拍,计算出伺(si)服(fu)(fu)系统的(de)(de)(de)位移和(he)轨(gui)迹(ji),对驱(qu)动(dong)器(qi)PID参数进(jin)行动(dong)态调(diao)整(zheng)。桁架(jia)(jia)机械手(shou)(shou)根据接收到的(de)(de)(de)位移、速(su)(su)(su)度(du)(du)指(zhi)令,经变(bian)化(hua)、放大并(bing)调(diao)整(zheng)处理后(hou),传递(di)给(ji)运(yun)动(dong)单元,通过(guo)光纤传感器(qi)对运(yun)行状态进(jin)行实时(shi)检测(ce),在(zai)高(gao)速(su)(su)(su)搬(ban)运(yun)过(guo)程(cheng)(cheng)中(zhong),运(yun)动(dong)部件在(zai)极短的(de)(de)(de)时(shi)间内到达给(ji)定(ding)的(de)(de)(de)速(su)(su)(su)度(du)(du),并(bing)能在(zai)高(gao)速(su)(su)(su)行程(cheng)(cheng)中(zhong)瞬间准停,通过(guo)高(gao)分辩率绝对式(shi)(shi)编码器(qi)的(de)(de)(de)插补运(yun)算,控制(zhi)机械误(wu)差(cha)(cha)和(he)测(ce)量(liang)误(wu)差(cha)(cha)对运(yun)动(dong)精度(du)(du)的(de)(de)(de)影响(xiang)。由(you)于被(bei)(bei)输送(song)的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)件不同(tong),质(zhi)量(liang)也不同(tong),因此,桁架(jia)(jia)机械手(shou)(shou)有(you)多种规(gui)格和(he)系列。在(zai)选择时(shi),根据被(bei)(bei)输送(song)工(gong)件的(de)(de)(de)质(zhi)量(liang),加(jia)工(gong)的(de)(de)(de)节(jie)拍来(lai)选取。但机械手(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)(de)手(shou)(shou)臂,夹持(chi)方式(shi)(shi),则(ze)根据被(bei)(bei)输送(song)工(gong)件的(de)(de)(de)形状、结构及机床夹具定(ding)夹方式(shi)(shi)来(lai)设计(见图2)。

机(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)能够借助可(ke)编程序来处理(li)和(he)执(zhi)行(xing)任务。机(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)主要由手(shou)图 1 臂、回转装置、运动部件(jian)及(ji)驱(qu)动部件(jian)组成。通过(guo)对工件(jian)外(wai)形(xing)或工件(jian)上(shang)(shang)定位(wei)支撑点定位(wei)夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)工件(jian)。例如,在汽车发(fa)动机(ji)加(jia)工柔性自动线物(wu)流(liu)输送中,桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)的(de)(de)夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)会根据缸(gang)(gang)体、缸(gang)(gang)盖(gai)、曲轴(zhou)等工件(jian)的(de)(de)外(wai)形(xing)特点,选取不同的(de)(de)定位(wei)和(he)夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)方式。柔性机(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)上(shang)(shang)采用(yong)气缸(gang)(gang)和(he)电机(ji)进行(xing)定位(wei)和(he)夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)的(de)(de)切换(huan)驱(qu)动,一套机(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)可(ke)完(wan)成不同品(pin)种的(de)(de)工件(jian)搬运工作。夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)定位(wei)模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)可(ke)根据产品(pin)质量(liang)和(he)外(wai)形(xing)的(de)(de)大小采用(yong)系列化设计,机(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)上(shang)(shang)的(de)(de)夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)定位(wei)模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)安装方式相(xiang)同,针对不同系列的(de)(de)工件(jian),只需(xu)切换(huan)相(xiang)应的(de)(de)夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)定位(wei)模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)即(ji)可(ke),满足快速(su)切换(huan)的(de)(de)需(xu)要。这样,当加(jia)工不同品(pin)种的(de)(de)工件(jian),只须变换(huan)夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)就(jiu)可(ke)实(shi)现,提高了桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)的(de)(de)柔性化。

桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用

1.自动线(xian)桁架机械手输(shu)送装(zhuang)置的(de)发展(zhan)及(ji)现状

自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)发(fa)(fa)展,经历了刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)和(he)柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)两(liang)个时代。就(jiu)目(mu)前(qian)而(er)言, 在国内二者均有之(zhi)。刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)分为(wei)棘(ji)(ji)轮棘(ji)(ji)爪、摆(bai)杆、抬起步(bu)伐、机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)滚(gun)道等形式(shi)。随(sui)着加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)发(fa)(fa)展,由(you)(you)其组成(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)逐步(bu)替代组合机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)组成(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),它以(yi)适(shi)应(ying)小(xiao)批量多品种(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)优点,得到市场的(de)(de)(de)(de)广泛认可,并称(cheng)其为(wei)柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)。这种(zhong)以(yi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)组成(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),就(jiu)其输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)装(zhuang)置或(huo)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)带依然为(wei)刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing), 这类柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)可谓是准柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。当(dang)今的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)又有了飞跃,输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)形式(shi)以(yi)刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou))并存,或(huo)纯柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song),即输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)系统(tong)全部(bu)由(you)(you)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)组成(cheng)(cheng),这是真正(zheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),即主机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing),输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)系统(tong)也柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。如主机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)是高(gao)速加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)配以(yi)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song),又称(cheng)之(zhi)为(wei)敏捷柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),是敏捷制(zhi)(zhi)造系统(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)重要组成(cheng)(cheng)部(bu)分。自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)采(cai)用桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)后(hou),输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)步(bu)距可根据机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)配置随(sui)意改(gai)变(bian),自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)上的(de)(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)与(yu)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)之(zhi)间的(de)(de)(de)(de)安装(zhuang)位置不再象刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)那(nei)样(yang),按照输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)步(bu)距或(huo)步(bu)距倍数(shu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)要求进(jin)行(xing)严格的(de)(de)(de)(de)安装(zhuang),且输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)速度也可根据生(sheng)(sheng)产节拍及输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)距离而(er)改(gai)变(bian)。而(er)真正(zheng)体现(xian)柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)重要一面(mian)(mian)是,当(dang)被加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)零件的(de)(de)(de)(de)产品改(gai)变(bian)后(hou),输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)部(bu)分不会(hui)不适(shi)应(ying)而(er)全部(bu)更(geng)换,只要改(gai)变(bian)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)程(cheng)序和(he)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)局部(bu)结构即可。采(cai)用桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)更(geng)先进(jin)的(de)(de)(de)(de)一面(mian)(mian)是,机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)整体的(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)化、智能化的(de)(de)(de)(de)协(xie)调统(tong)一。因此,桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)才在当(dang)今柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)上越(yue)来越(yue)多地被采(cai)用,使(shi)整个生(sheng)(sheng)产过(guo)程(cheng)通过(guo)信息流系统(tong)进(jin)行(xing)控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)。在加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)和(he)运(yun)(yun)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)过(guo)程(cheng)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),所需各(ge)(ge)种(zhong)信息收集、处(chu)理、反馈(kui),并通过(guo)电子计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)或(huo)其他(ta)控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)装(zhuang)置(液压(ya)、气压(ya)装(zhuang)置等),对机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)或(huo)运(yun)(yun)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)设备实行(xing)分级控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)。信息流系统(tong)分为(wei)由(you)(you)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)央管理计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、物流控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、单元控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、各(ge)(ge)数(shu)控(kong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)以(yi)及信息传送(song)网络组成(cheng)(cheng)。目(mu)前(qian),汽车制(zhi)(zhi)造业中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)发(fa)(fa)动(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)缸(gang)体、缸(gang)盖及曲轴(zhou)等大批量关键(jian)零件的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),大都采(cai)用了桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(见图(tu)3)。

2. 国内外的差(cha)距

当(dang)下(xia),我(wo)国机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)发展(zhan)(zhan)很快(kuai),技术水(shui)平有了很大的(de)(de)(de)提(ti)高(gao),与(yu)国外的(de)(de)(de)差(cha)距(ju)(ju)变(bian)得(de)(de)越(yue)来越(yue)小,甚至有些机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)与(yu)国外相比(bi)已经(jing)没有什么差(cha)距(ju)(ju)。特(te)别是国家重大科技专项的(de)(de)(de)开展(zhan)(zhan),为(wei)我(wo)国机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)上档次(ci)上水(shui)平提(ti)高(gao)了加(jia)(jia)速度,成(cheng)绩显而易见(jian)。加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)这几年(nian)发展(zhan)(zhan)的(de)(de)(de)特(te)别快(kuai),但柔(rou)(rou)性加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)技术水(shui)平和(he)(he)档次(ci),较国外的(de)(de)(de)差(cha)距(ju)(ju)还很明显,国外采(cai)(cai)用(yong)(yong)桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)较为(wei)普遍,而国内(nei)却为(wei)数不(bu)多(duo),国内(nei)庞大的(de)(de)(de)汽(qi)车(che)生(sheng)(sheng)产市场所采(cai)(cai)用(yong)(yong)的(de)(de)(de)带(dai)桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),大多(duo)从国外进口。如无锡柴(chai)油(you)发动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)厂(chang)的(de)(de)(de)缸(gang)体(ti)缸(gang)盖(gai)柔(rou)(rou)性加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)由德国GROB公(gong)司(si)总(zong)承包,由BZ800加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心、GROB专机(ji)(ji)(ji)、清洗(xi)机(ji)(ji)(ji)、拧紧机(ji)(ji)(ji)、试(shi)漏机(ji)(ji)(ji)、压装机(ji)(ji)(ji)在(zai)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)检具、辅(fu)机(ji)(ji)(ji)及珩(heng)磨(mo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)组(zu)成(cheng)。输(shu)送(song)(song)采(cai)(cai)用(yong)(yong)空(kong)中桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)和(he)(he)机(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)滚道(dao)自动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)输(shu)送(song)(song)。仅(jin)以(yi)汽(qi)车(che)制造业而言,国内(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)产的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性自动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),采(cai)(cai)用(yong)(yong)桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)屈指可数。大连机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)集(ji)团(tuan)和(he)(he)沈(shen)阳机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)集(ji)团(tuan)等生(sheng)(sheng)产出了该方面(mian)的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),并在(zai)生(sheng)(sheng)产实际中得(de)(de)到(dao)了应用(yong)(yong)。图(tu)4是大连机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)集(ji)团(tuan)生(sheng)(sheng)产的(de)(de)(de)DKX017缸(gang)体(ti)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)柔(rou)(rou)性自动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)。加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)两(liang)种缸(gang)体(ti),分别为(wei)四缸(gang)和(he)(he)六缸(gang),其(qi)输(shu)送(song)(song)采(cai)(cai)用(yong)(yong)空(kong)中桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)和(he)(he)自动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)两(liang)端为(wei)机(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)滚道(dao)等形(xing)式。桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)两(liang)个,一个上料,一个下(xia)料。它(ta)的(de)(de)(de)成(cheng)功(gong),标志着我(wo)国国产由桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)开始向国际水(shui)准迈进。

上述提(ti)及(ji)的(de)(de)只是(shi)数量上的(de)(de)比较(jiao),其实真(zhen)正的(de)(de)原(yuan)因还是(shi)国(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)的(de)(de)技术(shu)水平与国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)有着一(yi)定的(de)(de)差距(ju)。柔(rou)(rou)性加工(gong)自(zi)(zi)动线采用的(de)(de)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou),也是(shi)从(cong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)进(jin)口的(de)(de)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)。那(nei)时,国(guo)(guo)(guo)内(nei)还没(mei)有专门生产(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)的(de)(de)厂(chang)家。如今,国(guo)(guo)(guo)内(nei)巨一(yi)等一(yi)些桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)生产(chan)厂(chang)家的(de)(de)涌(yong)出,为国(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)柔(rou)(rou)性加工(gong)自(zi)(zi)动线带来(lai)了希望,进(jin)而(er)缩小了与国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)在生产(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)方(fang)面(mian)的(de)(de)差距(ju),国(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)在柔(rou)(rou)性加工(gong)自(zi)(zi)动线的(de)(de)应用也越(yue)来(lai)越(yue)多,从(cong)而(er)打破国(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)市场被外(wai)国(guo)(guo)(guo)人的(de)(de)垄断。

桁架机械手作为柔性输送系统,已成为柔性加工自动线中的重要组成部分,过去未采用桁架机械手输送的自动线中的输送部分称之为输送带或输送装置。而今,用了桁架机械手则称之为输送系统或物流系统。过去的输送带由机床生产厂自己生产,而今则由外部专业生产厂来提供;过去的输送带驱动或是用一个油缸,或是减速机通过链条或机动辊子驱动,各个动作单独来完成,所用时间较长且位置精度较差,而今则由伺服系统驱动,完成多个坐标的复合运动,所用时间短, 效率高, 且运动位置精准。这些的进步,都缘于技术水平的提高,解决了桁架机械手的关键技术及难点技术。相信,随着国产桁架机械手技术水平的不断提高,桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用会越来越多,采用桁架机械手的柔性加工自动线将会成为今后的一大卖点,市场前景非常可观,从而带动国产柔性加工自动线有一个质的飞跃。


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关键词:桁架机器人,桁架机械手,工业多关节机械手

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